Friday, May 22, 2020

Serial Killer Behavior - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1483 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/06/26 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Serial Killer Essay Did you like this example? Serial killers have been around for many generations, and there isnt a specific reason as to why they develop such violent behaviors. These things can be accompanied by the development of sexual paraphilias and childhood trauma, which can encourage the development of a personality disorder or psychopathy. One of those disorders being Antisocial Personality Disorder. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Serial Killer Behavior" essay for you Create order An article written by Bradley R. Johnson, MD, and Judith V. Becker, Ph.D. talks about the case files of adolescents who have expressed fantasies about becoming serial killers. These fantasies would take place between the ages of 14-18 years old and are similar to that of a sadistic serial killer. Johnson and Becker point out that this is also the time in youth where sexual paraphilias develop. A sexual paraphilia is when he/she are sexually aroused by an object that is not normally considered sexually arousing. (Woods, 2018) The question of whether or not we can predict who will be serial killers based on their adolescent years is posed. There are a number of essential components to most paraphilic behaviors, including fantasy, compulsive masturbation, and facilitators (e.g., alcohol, drugs,etc..) which serves to motivate violent and/or deviant sexual conduct. (Arrigo Purcell, 2001) The Sadistic Murder by Richard von Krafft- Ebing highlighted the similarities in the history of serial killers and the teens. From the contradictory feelings for their mother to their personality disorders. They all enjoyed the power and had a history of animal cruelty. It was brought out that having deviant sexual fantasies is normal and that people who experience sexual paraphilia dont act on their fantasies. If adolescence is having these sadistic sexual fantasies, they should be watched closely but there is no guarantee that they will act upon their fantasies. There are similarities between serial killers and these children but there is no direct connection. (Woods, 2018) In one particular case, H, 18-year-old, white male, suffered from ADHD and chronic depression. He was of below average intelligence with possible learning disabilities. At an early age, he recalled being physically abused by his mother and being sexually provocative, exposing herself to him or watching him undre ss and making erotic comments. His parents once engaged in sexual intercourse in front of him. At the age of 14, he began to fantasize about having sexual intercourse with his mother, killing her, and continuing to have intercourse with her corpse. He even admitted to masturbating 8 times a day to this thought with the aid of his mothers underwear. (Johnson Becker, 1997) Although this instance does not directly connect to future violent actions, it does bring light on childhood trauma and how it can lead to personality disorders. Other historical factors common in serial killers are abuse, trauma, insecure attachment, loss or abandonment of a parent or caretaker, antisocial behavior, head injury, and low arousal levels. (Labrode, 2007) The diagnosis of a conduct disorder is also given when a child starts to develop antisocial traits starting with animal cruelty and torture. A conduct disorder involves a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior where societal norms are violated. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) According to DSM-5 criteria for conduct disorder, there are four categories that could be present in the childs behavior: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules. Paraphilias can occur within the context of Axis II disorders such as borderline or antisocial personality disorders. (Malin Saleh, 2007) Referring back to the previous case, H was diagnosed with ADHD which is a conduct disorder which could have been influe nced by the treatment from his mother. ADHD is diagnosed with a child under the age of eighteen and cannot be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. The criteria are quite different because of the age group but this disorder definitely mirrors that of a personality if the severity increased. One of the points of criteria in Antisocial Personality Disorder, there has had to be evidence of a conduct disorder. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior mirrors the criteria of ADHD which brings out that the children will be reluctant to engage in an activity such as homework. The impulsivity of a child with ADHD is that of a person with ASPD and has the potential of meeting all of the requirements for the personality disorder. The DSM brings out, antisocial personality disorder is a persuasive pattern of disregard forthe rights of others that begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) In order for the patient to get diagnosed with this disorder, they have to be 18 years of age and has had a history of a conduct disorder around the age of 15. People with antisocial personality disorder lack empathy and can display superficial charm and is more common in males who take over the demographics of serial killers. Since the psychopathy also includes some of these traits, these two terms are seen as synonymous. Scientifically speaking, the amygdala responses to fearful facial expressions (Blair, 2003), which have been found to be impaired in people with psychopathy. Although psychopathic people with ASPD are not psychopathic killers, there is still a chance that they could be compelled to kill. When looking at the criterion, the psychopathy checklist is more relevant when diagnosing a serial killer even though the criteria overlap. (LaBrode, 2007) This type of disorder originates from environmental factors such as family and if there were neglect and abuse. As a child dealing with abuse or neglect, they develop coping mechanisms to numb or displace their emotions or there becomes an absence of the emotions. As the child grows into adolescence they may act out displacing those emotions into the form of vandalism, theft, and or violence. If the juvenile with an antisocial personality disorder were still exposed to the environmental factors contributing to the abuse they felt when they were younger, it could cause a severe violent reaction, acting as a displacement for the pent-up emotions such as homicidal tendencies with animals and then with people eventually leading to psychopathic behaviors. (Murray, 2018) According to the FBI, the development of social coping mechanisms starts during early childhood and the failure of developing coping mechanisms can lead to violent behavior. Most serial killers eroticized violence during their development, which intertwined sexual gratification and violent behavior. (Johns, Keel, Malkiewics, McNamar a, Mellecker, OToole, Resch, Safarik, Showalter, and Trahern, 2010) We are going to focus on certain serial killers that meet the criteria of ASPD based on their childhood. Ted Bundy Ted Bundy was a serial killer, rapist, necrophiliac, and kidnapper who taunted 7 states between 1974-1978 by committing 30+ murders on young women. Bundy was regarded as handsome and charismatic, which were traits that he exploited to win their trust. He would then seclude and assault them, and would even revisit the scene to sexually violate the body during decomposition and it was impossible to interact with it anymore. He decapitated 12 of his victims and even kept their heads as trophies. (Wikipedia, 2018) During his childhood, he was essentially raised by his grandparents who posed as his parents while his mother posed as his sister. Bundy respected his grandfather greatly who had a showed his abusive habits towards anyone who questioned his authority which contradicted his grandmothers obedient attitude. At his young age, he showed interest in women and even went around to peep into their homes and it escalated to watching pornography. He also showed interest in crime magazines which encouraged his sexual violent fantasies. Christina Nixon, a Bundy expert claimed, considering porn magazines view women as sex objects, it most certainly amplified his feelings of hate/disrespect towards certain women. (Hammon, 2017) His violent urges were sparked by the sudden breakup with his girlfriend, Stephanie Brooks. Similar to how he grew comfortable around his girlfriend then suddenly got dumped, he made his victims feel comfortable and killed them. All his victims had brown hair with a part down the middle which could be assumed to be how his girlfriend looked. Bundy displayed many personality traits typically found in ASPD patients such as the charm he used on the women he abducted and killed. Although there is no direct connection between Antisocial personality disorder and serial killings, there is evidence that the traits of ASPD can influence the actions of ones sexually violent fantasies due to the lack of remorse and regard of others. Since there isnt one theory pointing towards the cause of a serial killers violent behavior, sexual paraphilias and childhood trauma contribute to the development of a personality disorder. In one particular case, an adolescent, diagnosed with a conduct disorder, de veloped a sexual sadist fantasy about his mother which ended in her death. This highlighted the connection of conduct disorders during childhood which could lead to the diagnosis of ASPD. This proves the point that these factors could lead to acting upon ones violent urges which is the impulsivity catergorized in ASPD and CD during childhood.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The School For The Blind s Mission - 939 Words

The School for the Blind’s mission is to ensure that all students graduate college or career ready. Thus, the school is providing students with real world experiences to succeed in adult life. The school has a commitment to provide a digital learning community which compliments teaching strategies. Enclosed in this essay is a 2013-2016 long-range technology plan that extends beyond the number of computers, wireless access areas, and network servers. The plan serves as a way to infuse technology into the everyday classroom, improve student engagements and enhance strategies for instruction. The Technology plan includes a background, curriculum ad technology, the latitude to learn and learning technology goals, objectives, strategies and timelines. The school captured the goals of teachers, technology specialists, parents, students and other stakeholders. The principal held design/strategy meetings to identify values about learning and technology in the school. The input led to categories of the information resulted in equity access, engagement, professional learning, A cross-functional team of curriculum and technical personnel told about the resources available and the resources needed. The study led to the development of the Technology Framework, 2012. The plan addresses the strengths and the weaknesses. The school began with including a robust wireless Local Area Network to support the mobile initiative including the laptop and tablet. Both financial and resources wereShow MoreRelatedBlind And Deaf Since Birth1389 Words   |  6 Pagescentury. (Marie s Story, 2014) Blind and deaf since birth, young Marie Heurtin begins to experience the world in new ways as a nun coaxes her out of isolation.  (Netflix) Marie s father takes her to a boarding school, Notra-Dame de Larnay run by nuns, for deaf girls in hopes that they may be able to help Marie. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Algal Biomass Free Essays

In addition to that, access to carbon dioxide and water areessential. Even though microalgae can produce in the presence of saline water,fresh water is needed in a raceway pond system to compensate for the evaporativeloss depending on the wind velocity, air temperature, and humidity level of thelocation. Temperature is an important element in biomass cultivation. We will write a custom essay sample on Algal Biomass or any similar topic only for you Order Now Most algaegrow better in warmer climates ranging from 25-40?. Tropical locations with auniformly warm temperature throughout the year (Chisti, 2016), can act as perfectlocations for algaculture as the temperature doesn’t have to be monitored at alltimes, and the algae can adapt to local conditions.There are however some drawbacks while using raceway pond systems, thatrender them sometimes ineffective. Since, carbon dioxide is required to acceleratethe production of microalgae, an accumulation of oxygen can act as a hindrance tothe process. There is no known mechanism in a raceway pond, that helps curb thisaccumulation of oxygen. Peak sunlight hours during the day can hamper with thephotosynthesis, as the level of oxygen may increase to up to three times of the levelin saturated water. For this reason, smaller raceway ponds achieve better resultsthan larger ponds with respect to oxygen removal, and in turn better productivity. Another issue with raceways is the contamination due to exposure to rain, dust andother debris. Smaller ponds may be placed inside, but that can’t be said for largerponds. Filtration can help inhibit infestations and contamination of the ponds, but thatis an expensive process.The production cost of biomass with raceways is considered to be the leastexpensive option. The cost of a pond depends on the type of facility it is built in,plastic lined earthen raceways are the least expensive alternatives with their totalcost of construction amounting to be approximately $70,000 per hectare, whereasponds enclosed in greenhouses or covered facilities are more expensive as theyprotect from contamination. Raceways require least amount of capital investmentand therefore remain the system of choice, despite their low productivity anddrawbacks. Photo-bioreactors (PBRs) A photo-bioreactor is a closed equipment which provides a controlledenvironment and enables high productivity of algae. PBRs curb all the problems thatare faced in raceways ponds, like carbon dioxide supply, temperature, optimaloxygen levels, pH levels etc. There are two types of photo-bioreactors- flat-plate andand tubular. Both PBRs are made of transparent materials for maximum solar lightenergy absorption. Flat-plate PBRs are suitable for mass cultivation of algae,because high photosynthetic efficiencies can be achieved. Tubular PBRs aresuitable for outdoor cultivation, and are constructed with either glass or plastic tubes. Systems covering large areas outdoors, consist of tubes exposed to sunlight and canbe operated either in batches or continuously. Photo-bioreactors usually have a4water pool as a temperature control system in order to prevent the tubes fromoverheating as they act as solar receptors. They also have built in cleaning systemfor the tubes without stopping production. Fundamentally, using photo-bioreactorsare more advantageous than using raceways for many reasons, like cultivation ofalgae under controlled environments resulting in higher productivity, protection fromcontamination, space-saving and larger surface to volume ratio. However there aresome limitations attached to PBRs; the capital cost is very high which is impedingthe progress of microalgae biofuel production, in spite of larger production levels. Also, data from the past two decades has shown that the productivity in an enclosePBR is not much higher than that achieved in open-pond cultures.3. Environmental Limitations of Microalgae CultivationAs with all large scale productions, wide scale microalgae biofuel productioncould have diverse environmental impacts. Water is a critical element of the biofuelproduction processes, in both raceway-ponds and PBRs. With the current globalwater crisis, using large amounts of fresh water to compensate for evaporation inopen ponds or to cool PBRs, renders the system economically unviable. Seawater orbrackish water may be used in these functions, but have to be filtered in order toprevent infestation of bacteria, and contamination. Recirculating water is onealternative to curb the usage of water, but that has risks of virus infestations, and theresidues of previously destroyed algae cells. Filtration systems are expensive, andfactor in with the lack of cost effectiveness of these systems.Most microalgae production farms have to be located close to the equator inorder to ensure high levels of production due to the uniformity of the climate, andadequate amount of solar radiation. Another factor is the type of land and terrain thefarm is located in, for instance to install a large raceway pond, a relatively flat land isrequired. The addition of nutrients and fertilisers like nitrogen and phosphorus is alsoessential for algaculture. The amount of nutrients and fertilisers to be usedadditionally depends on the soil porosity and permeability of the land. Algalcultivation requires a lot of fertilisers to make up for the compensation for fossil fuels.Researching and budgeting nutrients and fertilisers is a key concern in research anddevelopment of microalgae cultivation. Algal cultivation requires usage of fossil fuels continuously in a plethora ofways, ranging from electricity consumption during cultivation and natural gas used todry the algae for production. In PBRs, the temperature control for cooling the pipesfrom overheating increases the use of fossil fuels. This use of fossil fuels in algaebiofuel production is paradoxical to the cause and a dire need to optimise the systemto minimise the energy usage is established. That being said, microalgae cultivationfaces a variety of environmental challenges, coming from the location to the type of5algae. Energy conservation and water management are two of the main challengesto be conquered to make the system sustainable in the future.4. Cost EffectivenessThe cost of algae biofuel production is essential to establish to know howsustainable this system can be in the future. The cost of biofuel production dependson a variety of factors, such as the the yield of the biomass, geographical location, oilcontent, scale of production systems etc. Presently, microalgae biofuel production isstill more expensive than normal diesel fuels because of the ongoing RD, and theambiguity of current knowledge. Chisti in 2007 approximated the cost of productionof algal-oils from a PBR with an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons per yearand estimated the cost of $2.80 per litre, considering the oil content to be 30% in thealgae used. This estimation is exclusive of the algal oil to biodiesel conversion costs,logistics, marketing costs and taxes. Due to these high costs of algal-fuel, the utmostimportance during research should be given to cost-saving itself, in an attempt tomake biofuel from microalgae affordable enough to be commercialised in the nearfuture.Open pond systems would ideally be the most economically viable way tocultivate microalgae biofuel, but not without it’s set of intrinsic disadvantagesdiscussed earlier in this research paper. As the technology gets increasinglyadvanced, the cost factor multiplies as well making the entire process a lot lesseconomical than what was started with first hand. Improved yield of biomass andnutrient oils (or lipids) would make the production costs drop rapidly.Moreover, to reduce the production costs alternative ways to manage energy andwater consumption have to be devised, a simplified design for PBRs is necessary.Substitutes for fresh water like wastewater and flue gases can contribute to lowercosts of production. Biofuel Production The rapid growth of environmental pollution by the usage of conventionalfossil fuels has sparked a lot of concern globally. The research and development foralternative fuels is one of the principal focuses for every country in an attempt for asustainable and promising future on this planet for all generations. Various optionsare available to us to help us make this shift, however to find a sustainable methodwhich is as promising as it is economically viable is a global challenge. Currently,biomass derived fuels seem to be the most optimistic path.Various ways of harvesting algae have been discussed in this paper, the next step istypically to process the algae in a series of steps which differ from species to6species. One of the most important approaches in biomass production isHydrothermal Liquefaction or HTL.5.1 Hydrothermal LiquefactionHydrothermal Liquefaction employes â€Å"a continuous process that subjectsharvested wet algae to high temperatures and pressures† (Elliot, 2013). Convertingsolid biomass to liquid fuels is not a spontaneous process. The liquid fuels derivedfrom fossil fuels on a large scale took thousands of years to convert biomass tocrude oil and gas. In present day, there are many modern conversion technologies toobtain liquefied fuels from various biomasses, these conversion technologies canfundamentally be classified into biochemical and thermochemical conversion.Biochemical mass usually has low energy density, high moisture content and doesnot have a very viscous physical form. Thermochemical conversions in comparisonare much more viscous as they are converted at very high temperatures in highpressures in the presence of catalysts that make the conversions much more rapid.Simply, Hydrothermal Liquefaction is â€Å"the thermochemical conversion of biomassinto liquid fuels by processing in a hot, pressurized environment for sufficient time tobreak down into solid bio polymeric structure to mainly liquid components†(Gollakota, 2017). Microalgae is, amongst all possible biomass sources, the most efficientand reliable source of wet biomass due to its high photosynthetic efficiency,maximum production levels, and its rapid growth in almost all environments. Overthe years, many thermochemical conversions have made their way, and while eachhas their pros and cons, HTL has come a long way as one of the most appropriateprocesses to tackle thermochemical conversion of wet biomass. Many scientists overthe years have done extensive research pertaining to the development ofhydrothermal liquefaction, such as Beckmann and Elliott who studied the propertiesof oil obtained from HTL of biomass, and gave crucial inputs with respect to the kindof catalysts and other parameters are pertinent to the HTL process to ensuresignificant productivity.5.2 Process MechanismCurrently, the knowledge about HTL process mechanisms is qualitative andneeds a lot more space for research. The mechanism comprises of three majorsteps: depolymerisation, decomposition and recombination. The chemistry behind allthese processes is very complex as the biomass is a complex mixture ofcarbohydrates, proteins, oils etc. Each working mechanism of hydrothermalliquefaction is discussed below.5.2.1 Depolymerisation7In this process the macromolecules of the biomass are dissolves through theirphysical and chemical properties. Depolymerisation makes it easier for the biomassto overcome it’s natural qualities and start behaving like fossil fuels. It mimics thegeological processes, that are involved in the production of conventional fossil fuels.The process first grounds the feedstock material into small chunks and mixes it withwater, if the feedstock is fry. This mixture is then put into a pressure vessel reactionchamber where it is heated at a constant volume at a temperature of 250?, themixture is held in these conditions for approximately 15 minutes at the end of whichthe pressure is released and most of the water is boiled off. The resultant concoctionconsists of crude hydrocarbons and solid minerals. The minerals are removed andthe hydrocarbons are sent to the second stage.The disadvantage of this process is that it only breaks down long molecularchains into shorter ones, this implies that smaller molecules like carbon dioxide ormethane cannot be broken down further by depolymerisation. Decomposition or Dehydration The second stage of hydrothermal liquefaction involves the loss of the watermolecule, the carbon dioxide molecule and the acid content. Water at high pressuresand temperatures breaks down the hydrogen bonded structure of celluloses and inturn forms glucose monomers. This is how HTL provides an alternative processroute from microalgae biofuels to hydrocarbon liquid fuels.5.2.3 RecombinationThis is the last step in HTL which is reverse of the two previous processesbecause of the absence of the hydrogen compound. The free radicals are largelyavailable which in turn recombine or repolymerise to form high molecular weight charcompounds.5.3 Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae:The main advantage of using HTL for microalgae is that it doesn’trequire the predrying of feedstock, yet ensuring a relatively high production. Theprocess of HTL applied to microalgae is similar to treating cellulose but with a fewdifferences, the major one being treating wed feedstock as opposed to dryfeedstock. One of the principally researched issues that will ensure high productivityis a high lipid yield, which is necessary to convert microalgae into biodiesel. Theeffect of significant variables, such as temperature, pressure, volume, biomassconcentration and compositions of algae, catalysts et al. is still under research.During hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae, a rational heat management system8must be put in place that ensures energy efficiency and separation of the endproduct. Current Situation ; Future Viability:In present day, pertaining to all the advantages and disadvantages of HTL,there is sufficient proof that HTL has potential to become a commercialisedtechnology in the future.Biofuels produced using hydrothermal liquefaction are absent of carbon, thisimplies that there are no carbon emissions produced when the biofuel is burnt.Materials like algae use photosynthesis to grow, and therefore use the carbondioxide already present in the atmosphere. The carbon imprint produced by biofuelsis exponentially lower than what is already being experienced by conventional fossilfuels. Hydrothermal Liquefaction is a clean process, which doesn’t harm theenvironment by producing harmful gases like ammonia or sulphur. If the technologyis mastered, HTL can pave the way for clean algal biofuels globally, although thereare still a number of challenges to be overcome. Conclusion The cultivation and production of microalgae biofuels is swiftly developing andis receiving attention and funding from global leaders. The rapid increase in worldpopulation, and hence the energy demand is a siren call to devise an alternativeenergy source. Microalgae’s versatile qualities make it a promising path to tread onwhen it comes to biofuels. There are various ways to derive biofuels from algae aswe saw in this paper, and also many challenges attached with them. Bio-oil obtainedfrom various processes suffers from various drawbacks such as a high oxygencontent, instability etc, therefore an optimal technique to efficiently convert biomassto biofuel should be researched in order to be able to commercialise the use ofbiofuels in the near future. Making biofuels economically viable in the future is a bigchallenge in itself. Even though, photo-bioreactors promise a bright future in terms ofbiofuel cultivation, the overhead costs attached from cultivating the biofuel to makingit market ready and selling it are still quite high. These high costs of biofuels ascompared to conventional fossil fuels are what render them unready forcommercialisation. However, even with theoretical development and research, abright future for microalgae fossil fuels presents itself. How to cite Algal Biomass, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story Essay Example

Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story Essay Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story. It is about two star crossed lovers that are both in rival gangs one of these is Montegues and the other is Capulets. They marry to the disagreement of both gangs and cause conflict throughout. In the end they both die peacefully. The main themes of the play are conflict between the two gangs, the love of Romeo and Juliet and tragic losses. Romeo belongs to the Montegues gang, he is in love with Juliet, and he kills Tybalt and dies at the end of the play. Juliet belongs to the Capulet family; she is in love with Romeo and marries him. She takes a sleeping pill to avoid marrying Paris and pretend that she is dead and wakes to see Romeo dead beside her and commits suicide. Tybalt belongs to the Capulet gang, he is Juliets cousin he gets himself into a fight with Mercutio and kills him and is then killed by Romeo. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet is a dramatic love story specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Mercutio belongs to the Montegues, he is a friend of Romeos and is killed by Tybalt. Benvolio is also in the Montegues gang, he is a follower of Romeo. Section 1 Leading up to Act 3 Scene I there are many key events which influence the scene. The Prince has ordered that anyone caught fighting will be killed. Romeo and Juliets marriage takes place in secret. Tybalt has seen Romeo at his gangs ball which makes him angry. The key things we learn about the characters in Act 3 Scene 1 are that Mercutio is hot tempered and volatile, he would fight with anyone. Tybalt wants a fight with Romeo because he saw him at the Capulet ball. Mercutio and Tybalt have a fight and Mercutio is killed. After that Romeo intervenes and kills Tybalt for revenge. The audience learn that Mercutio is an angry sort of person and is keen to fight at the slightest provocation. It is also learned that Romeo cares dearly about his friends and is prepared to risk his life for them. He is also quite petty and weak as he blames Juliet for his feminine side. The learn that Tybalt is violent with an aggressive personality and is eager for a fight. In terms of plot the audience learn that the Police will be after Romeo for the crime he has committed, this is a turning point for the tragedy that follows, because the fact that Romeo vanishes to Verona so the Police do not capture him made Juliet take the sleeping potion which lead to Romeo actually committing suicide and Juliet following suit. Section 2 At the start of the scene Benvolio and Mercutio have a friendly conversation which turns to more aggressive banter. Benvolio uses violent imagery although he says he does not want conflict. The hot weather will make people hot tempered and agitated. The heat will make them more stressed and up for a fight. For now hot days is the mal blood stirring . This is an example of aggressive imagery because he is mentioning hot tempers and blood. Mercutio replies by accusing Benvolio of being someone who walks into a pub not wanting a fight but as soon as he has a drink he is up for a fight. Basically saying that Benvolio is usually quick tempered and eager for a fight. Benvolios motivations and aims are to protect Romeo and make sure he doesnt get involved in any violence and fighting. He also wants to stop all violence in the street because he knows the consequences will be because of rules the prince has set. Section 3 Tybalts entrance is important and dramatic because he was angry with Romeo earlier in the play as he crashed the Capulets ball. This could spark off some banter maybe leading to a fight. Mercutios character is hot tempered and aggressive. His reactions to Tybalt are that he starts to twist his words to his own advantage in a aggressive tone. He is quite angry. And but one word with one of us? Couple it with something, make it a word and a blow He tries to confuse Tybalt and mock his polite request for a word with them. The audience begin to get frustrated with Mercutio because he is getting involved with Romeo and Tybalts business. We learn that Tybalts character is initially polite and courteous but he will be prepared to fight with the right person. If you shall find me apt enough to that sir, and how will give me occasion. He is a powerful character and is used to being treated with respect. 2 The tone Tybalt is addressing to Mercutio at this point is at first quite calm and polite , but as Mercutio butts in he begins to get more irritated he continues to insult and challenge him. The tension decreases when it becomes obvious that Tybalt is not interested in fighting with Mecutio, at this point. Now the audience know that Romeo is the man he wishes to confront, so the tension increases in anticipation for an upcoming fight. The audience can now expect conflict between Romeo and Tybalt as Tybalt is saving his anger for his key target. Section 4 In this paragraph I will discuss the dramatic importance of Romeos entrance. It is dramatic because Tybalt has just been speaking about him and we know that he is angry with him. Also we expect conflict because it is a Capulet and Montague together. Tybalts insult to Romeo Villain does not seem too harmful from a modern audiences point of view, however in Shakespearean times it was considered very insulting as it meant Romeo was of a lower class and of lesser importance, but we know that Romeo is from a noble family. Therefore an old Shakespearean audience would expect Romeo to settle the dispute with a dual. At the time the play was set honour and status were hugely important and as Romeo is of a high class he would find it difficult to contain his rage at Tybalts insult. Romeos first words of the scene show that he wants to be friends and that he is not a villain Tybalt, the reason that I have to love thee doth much excuse the appertaining rage to such a greeting. Villain am I none. Therefore farewell; I see thou knowst me not . Therefore this suggests that his character is laid back and does not want to fight, he is insulted but he is trying to keep peace with Tybalt because they are now related the reason I have to love thee. For the scene as a whole this makes way for the other fight that takes place. However Tybalts reaction is quite the opposite, he insults Romeo by saying Boy and then he invites Romeo to a fight . When the play was set Boy was very disrespectful because it is showing disrespect to Romeos status and belittling him. Romeo is trying to put an end to the ancient grudge but Tybalt refuses to accept this which shows that the feud between the families is destined to end in tragedy. 3 Section 5 Tybalt Mercutio, thou consortest with Romeo Tybalt is innocently asking Mercutio if he knows Romeo. It is important for Shakespearean audience because Tybalt is from a rich family so he is speaking in a formal way to reflect his status. When Tybalt enters the scene he says to his servants Follow me close, for I will speak to them. The Shakespearean audience will expect Tybalt to speak, the modern audience will perceive him as being an important person. The language reflects his forceful personality and status because he is using a command. The drama is the audience wondering what he will say. Mercutio Consort? what dost thou make us minstrels? When Mercutio replies, he twist Tybalts words and takes the words consort out of context. In Shakespeares time a consort referred to a poorly paid group of musicians whose social status would have been lower class. Mercutio is trying to trick Tybalt and provoke him to anger. Heres my fiddlestick; Heres shall make you dance. When Mercutio says this the Shakespearean audience are prepared for a fight with fiddlestick referring to a sword and dance referring to making him dance around with his sword. The modern audience may be a bit confused making thinking that it is a joke. Mercutio is using a clever metaphor to manipulate Tybalt, comparing the sword to a fiddlestick. There is also tension as Mecutio is looking for a fight. 4 Romeo Tybalt, the reason I have to love thee Doth much excuse the appertaining range to such a greeting. Villain I am none. The Shakespearean audience will expect Romeo to have a dual to defend his status when Tybalt calls him a villain. However because he will be related to Tybalt he is trying to settle things down so he can live in peace with Juliet. As he does not want a dual, Shakespearian audiences may think he is be rather cowardly as the word villain in such a strong word. The modern audiences may respect Romeo for showing courage not to fight Tybalt and attempting to settle an argument through words rather than physical force. When Romeo sees that Tybalt has killed Mercutio he says O sweet Juliet. They beauty hath made me effeminate and in my temper softened valours steel Romeo is saying that Juliet has made him more feminine, also that his anger has been softened. He is saying that from now on he will be stronger and more masculine. A modern audience may think he is weak for blaming Juliet for influencing his behaviour. Conclusion This scene is a very important turning point becuae many key things happened. Romeo and Juliets marriage seems to be doomed because of the conflict between the two families. Tybalt and Mercutio die in a violent fight. Romeo is banished from Verona and Benvolio is left to explain what has happened. This scene is very dramatic because the audience are left wondering what Romeo will do about Juliet and when he will come back. Also how both families will cope with the two deaths. 5 I have learnt that Romeo under his argumentative fighting side he is quite affectionate and respectable. I have also learnt that Juliet is affected by Romeos action because he has killed her cousin. I have learnt that Tybalt and Mercutio are hot tempered and volatile. I am now aware that a Shakespearean audience use and understand words that do not seem all that offensive in modern times but have a very offensive meaning behind them, for example villain in Shakespearean times means someone who is of a low status but in modern times some one who is quite mischievous.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Great Patriotic War essays

Great Patriotic War essays Assess the reasons for the success of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945. Concepts that should be considered include Industrialization, modernization and nationalism. Many contributing factors led the success of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War between 1941 to 1945. A primary reason for this triumph was the nationalistic determination of the people under Stalins leadership. The USSRs centralized industrialization and rapid mobilization held a key role in Soviet victory and was a secondary factor to Soviet success. It was the battle of Stalingrad that demonstrated the strength of the Soviet Union as it was to signal the turning point of the war for Russia. The mobilization of the Soviet economy, which resulted after Stalins speech to the nation on 3 July 1941, was a secondary factor leading to the success of the Great Patriotic War, between Russia and Germany. Industrialization, which had taken place prior to then, provided a substantial industrial base. Due to this previous preparation, the command economy and the Stalinist system enabled the USSR to mobilize quickly and efficiently under the co-ordination of the State Defense committee (GKO) in response to the war. Away from conflict, the Urals area was developed into a heavy industrial complex to concentrate on the production of war materials. Industrial production thrived as Soviet women replaced men, who were drafted into the Red army. Civilian production was now transformed into military production. Gill claimed the USSR out produced the Germans and provided weapons of higher quality. By 1941 production was 70 times greater than 1928. Even under attack, the Soviets were able to mass-produce munitions as another 1,523 defense industries were shifted to safer territory in the east of Russia which played a vital role in the war effort (Christian). The industrialization and modernization processes during the late 20...

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Get Into USC 5 Expert Admissions Tips

How to Get Into USC 5 Expert Admissions Tips SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The University of Southern California (USC) is a highly ranked private school located in Los Angeles, and, as a result, it draws thousands of qualified applicants each year.If you’re applying here, you are probably wondering what the USC admissions requirements are and what you’ll need to stand out as an applicant. In this article, we explain how to get into USC, offering you specific tips for what you can improve in your application.But first, how hard is it to get into USC? Feature Image: Ken Lund/Flickr How Hard Is It to Get Into USC? USC is a very selective university with an acceptance rate of just 13%- this means only about 1 in 8 students gets accepted. Interestingly, this percentage has fallen by 3% since 2017, indicating a downward trend in USC's acceptance rate, which has decreased in recent years due to a growing number of applicants.In the 2017-18 school year, a record 64,352 applicants applied to USC, out of which 8,339 were admitted. Here's howUSC's official news websitedescribes its student body: "More than a third of the [fall 2018] admitted class are straight-A students, and 60 percent have standardized test scores in the 99th percentile." Looking at this data alone, we can say with confidence that it's generally pretty difficult to get into USC- and it’s growing more difficult every year. So what kind of applicants is USC looking for? Let’s take a look. What USC Looks for in Applicants Because USC is so competitive, and because there are so many applicants applying each year, this school is looking for the best of the best when it comes to applicants. Here’s what USC writes about applicants on its website: "We look for those students we believe will thrive at USC. Our application process is designed to discover your individual story, so that we might see how you would take advantage of the many opportunities available at USC. †¦ We will review your performance in school, the rigor of your program, writing skills and test scores. We also consider personal qualities, as revealed in community involvement, leadership and achievements." In addition to strong numbers (i.e., test scores and grades/GPA), USC wishes to admit applicants with strong "personal qualities."These qualities can be illuminated through either academic or non-academic accomplishments, community service/volunteer efforts, or leadership experiences (for example, maybe you're the captain of the track team or you once organized a successful food drive at your school). As PrepScholar co-founder and perfect SAT/ACT scorer Allen Cheng discusses in his detailed guide to getting into Harvard, USC, like Harvard and other top schools, prefersapplicants with "spikes" in their extracurriculars- applicants with strong passions for specific activities or interests. After all, with USC's more than 60,000 applicants each year, you’ll definitely need something to help your application stand out! Here's how USC describes its most successful students to give you more of an idea of what they're looking for in applicants: "USC students pursue ambitious intellectual and professional goals by studying across disciplines and taking advantage of the diversity of programs available. They are willing to venture outside their comfort zones. They are interested in the world, in other peoples and cultures, and enjoy examining important issues from a global perspective." As you can see, USC is looking for applicants who aren’t just academically gifted but who are also willing to challenge their limits, learn about new fields, and assume a global perspective. Can You Apply Early Action or Early Decision to USC? Unlike many other private and prestigious universities, USC does not offer an early action/early decision plan to first-year students.Therefore, anyone applying to USC must do so by the same deadline (refer to the next section for more information on important dates). While you can’t apply early to USC, if USC is indeed your first-choice school, it's a smart idea to tell the admissions committee this so they can note it in your application.Here iswhat USC admissions expert Joe Beltran specifically recommends applicants doif USC is their first choice: "Students often ask me how they can let the admission office know that USC is their first choice. It’s simple: Just tell us. Tell us in your application, over email, telephone or in person. And we make note of that. We add these things to your files if you ask us to, and we keep them in mind as well."* *Emphasis mine Although you can’t apply early to USC to demonstrate your interest in attending the university, you can (and definitely should) let the admissions committee know about your interest in it so they can take this into consideration as they look at applications. Don't hide your true feelings- if USC is your first choice for college, let them know! Getting Into USC: Logistics and Deadlines All freshman applicants to USC must apply through the Common Application.Here's a checklist of all the major USC admission requirements: Common App USC Writing Supplement (on Common App) Official SAT/ACT test scores- applicants may also submit SAT Subject Test scores, AP test scores, and TOEFL scores (if international) Transcripts showing all high school coursework and any college coursework completed Letter(s) of recommendation- the number of letters you must submit to USC depends on the program/school you’re applying to Additional materials, such as a portfolio, writing sample, or resume (only if required by your specific program/school) Fall grades- these can be submitted via the Mid-Year Report Form on the Common App As indicated above, certain schools and programs at USC require additional materials from applicants.The following table shows the schools and programs that require supplementary documents and information (in addition to all the components listed above): School/Program Required Supplementary Materials School of Architecture Portfolio, Architecture Writing Supplement Roski School of Art and Design Art/Design Essay, list of creative experiences, portfolio Iovine and Young Academy for Arts, Technology and the Business of Innovation Proposal video, portfolio, interview (if selected) Marshall School of Business - World Bachelor in Business Program Video introduction, World Bachelor’s Business written prompts (on USC Writing Supplement) USC School of Cinematic Arts* Personal Statement, writing sample, creative work sample/portfolio, creative portfolio list, video sample, image essay, audio portrait, autobiographical character sketch, creative challenges, "Most Challenging Moment" task, project questions Glorya Kaufman School of Dance Portfolio, dance resume, short answer, additional information (optional), two video solos and descriptions, live audition (if selected) USC School of Dramatic Arts* Headshot, drama resume, "Take Three" image task, letter from drama teacher/coach, essay questions, creative submission, audition videos, live audition Thornton School of Music Portfolio, music resume, repertoire list, introductory video (certain majors only), audition recording, live audition (if selected) Resident Honors Program** Essay questions, short answers, counselor nomination form *Exact supplementary materials required for admission will vary depending on the major. **This program is only open to high school juniors. Now, let’s take a look at all the major USC deadlines, ordered from soonest to latest. December 1, 2018 Freshman application deadline for merit scholarship consideration (note that this is not an early action or early decision deadline) Freshman and transfer application deadline for the following schools/programs: Dramatic Arts (all programs) Cinematic Arts and Music (all programs) Kaufman School of Dance Iovine and Young Academy World Bachelor in Business (WBB) program January 15, 2019 Freshman application deadline (this is the regular freshman application deadline without merit scholarship consideration) February 1, 2019 (For freshman applicants)Last day by which merit scholarship notifications will be sent out Transfer application deadline for all other programs February 13, 2019 (For freshman applicants) Financial aid deadline for FAFSA and CSS profile applications March 4, 2019 (For transfer applicants) Financial aid deadline for FAFSA and CSS profile applications April 1, 2019 (For freshman applicants) Last day by which final admission notifications will be sent out May 31, 2019 (For transfer applicants) Last day by which final admission notifications will be sent out (For transfer applicants)Last day by which scholarship status notifications will be sent out Heed these next tips so you can be the happy face. USC Admission Requirements: 5 Tips for Getting In Now that you know the logistics of applying, let’s take a look at how to get into USC.What do you need in your application to increase your chance of getting into USC, one of the most prestigious colleges in the country? #1: Get a High GPA Admitted applicants to USC typically have very strong GPAs. For the fall 2018 class, the average (unweighted) high school GPA was 3.79/4.00.This means that the majority of admitted applicants had relatively strong grades, getting mostly or all As and possibly a few Bs. If your GPA is below 3.79, you'll most likely have a more difficult time getting into USC. Therefore, it’s best to aim as high as you can, preferably at least around a 3.85, so you will be well above average but won’t suffer too badly if you get a B in one or two classes. If you’re having trouble maintaining a high GPA, figure out which classes are bringing down your grades and then consider spending more time studying for those classes or hiring a tutor to give you the extra support you need. #2: Have a Rigorous, Challenging Course Load Another important aspect USC wants to see in applicants is evidence of a strong and challenging course load.Ideal applicants will have taken a fair share of AP, honors, and/or IB classes. Here's how USC describes its ideal applicantson its undergraduate admissions website: "No specific curriculum is prescribed or required, though students offered admission typically pursue the most rigorous program available to them in English, mathematics, science, social studies, foreign language and the arts. Careful attention is paid to preparation for the intended major." In addition to doing well in classes, strong applicants will have excelled in a rigorous academic program, particularly in classes relevant to their intended majors. If you’re a junior or younger and haven’t taken any challenging courses yet, try to sign up for some AP, honors, or IB classes the following academic year and for each subsequent year you’re in high school. It’s best to choose challenging classes that focus on the fields in which you’re already strong or have a large interest in studying.For example, if you’re a science buff, you could take AP Bio or AP Physics. While you don’t need to make every class you take a super hard one,aim to take about three to five upper-level classes each school year, at the very least starting your junior year.This doesn’t necessarily mean you must take the AP tests that go with these courses, though it’s not a bad idea to do so since it might earn you some college credit! Strong test scores- and possibly super strong back muscles- will definitely catch USC's eye. #3: Earn Strong SAT/ACT Scores In general, USC expects fairly high SAT/ACT scores from strong applicants. Below are the middle 50%, or average, score ranges*for both the SAT and ACT for the fall 2018 USC freshman class: SAT Composite: 1400-1530 Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW): 680-750 Math: 710-790 ACT Composite: 31-35 English: 33-35 Math: 29-35 *The lower score in each range is the 25th percentile (meaning 25% of applicants or fewer got this score), and the higher score is the 75th percentile (meaning 75% or fewer got this score). Clearly, you’ll need to have a pretty high SAT/ACT score in order to be considered a competitive applicant to USC.For the SAT, most applicants have a minimum score of 1400, or the 94th percentile nationally. Meanwhile, for the ACT, most applicants have a minimum score of 31, or the 95th percentile nationally.In other words, you’ll need to score in the top 5-6% of test takers in order to meet just the 25th percentile score at USC. Although getting a score below USC's 25th percentile threshold doesn’t automatically mean you’ll be rejected, it does indicate that it’ll likely be harder for you to get into USC unless you have other significantly impressive qualities. If you don’t meet this "minimum" threshold (1400 on the SAT and 31 on the ACT), the best course of action is to try to raise your SAT/ACT score.One way todo this is to make an SAT/ACT study plan that caters to your weaknesses.I also recommend checking out our guides for sometips on how to increase your SAT or ACT score. If you prefer having more hands-on guidance in your test prep, consider using our online SAT or ACT prep program, which is 100% customized to your test-prep needs and includes realistic questionswritten by real top scorers. #4: Write Excellent Essays In addition to the Common App essay, you're required to write two shorter essays as part of the USC Writing Supplement.Each essay must be no longer than 250 words, or about half the length of a typical college admissions essay. For the first USC essay, you must choose one of three prompts to respond to: USC believes that one learns best when interacting with people of different backgrounds, experiences and perspectives. Tell us about a time you were exposed to a new idea or when your beliefs were challenged by another point of view. Describe something outside of your intended academic focus about which you are interested in learning. What is something about yourself that is essential to understanding you? Choose the prompt that appeals to you the most and that you'll be able to respond to easily and effectively. For the first prompt, you shouldwrite about a specific incident in which a belief or opinion of yours was challenged.The key here is to focus on your reaction and what this particular incident taught you about yourself.This could be a political stance, a religious belief, or a personal opinion on a social issue. The second prompt is all about a field outside your intended major that you’re also interested in studying.This is a great opportunity to discuss how you became interested in this particular field and what you might do with it in the future.For instance, perhaps you plan to major in computer science but have recently realized, by taking a required art class, that you also have a strong interest in learning more about the history of paintings. The third essay prompt is quite broad and allows you to talk about anything you feel is important for the USC admissions committee to know about you.You could introducea specific interest, skill, or experience you have, or even offer an explanation for a problem in your academic record, such as a dip in your grades one semester or a below-average SAT score. A great tip to remember as I write my best-selling novel you write your USC essays. In addition to this first essay, you’ll have to write a second essay for the USC Writing Supplement. This essay only has one prompt (so you don’t get a choice here!): Describe how you plan to pursue your academic interests at USC. Please feel free to address your first- and second-choice major selections. This essay prompt simply wants to know what you plan to major in at USC and how you'll achieve your academic goals as a student. Basically,what's the intellectual path you expect to take at USC? For instance, if you plan to major in English, you could write about how you intend to take a more interdisciplinary approach by integrating foreign literature classes into your course load. Overall, in order to ensure you’re submitting two excellent essays to USC, be sure to use specific details, be honest about your experiences and feelings, and edit and proofread each essay before sending it in.Get more expert tips by reading our guide to the USC supplement (coming soon). It’s also important to note that some programs and schools require additional essays or short answers.For example, those applying to the School of Architecture must answer extra questions in the Architecture Writing Supplement. These school-specific essays are just as important as, if not more than, the three general USC essays you must write.Why? Because these essays ask you even more specific questions that relate to your intended field of study.Thus, you'll need to be able to clearly explain exactly why you’re interested in the field/program/school you're applying to. #5: Craft an Impressive Portfolio (Required for Certain Programs) Some programs at USC require the submission of creative portfolios along with the more general requirements listed above. If a portfolio is required,it’ll likely be one of the most important parts of your application. Make sure your portfolio follows all instructions, is 100% original, and is emblematic of your own creative mind, abilities, and goals. Here are all the schools at USC that require the submission of a portfolio: School of Architecture Roski School of Art and Design Iovine and Young Academy for Arts, Technology and the Business of Innovation USC School of Cinematic Arts Glorya Kaufman School of Dance Thornton School of Music What’s Next? USC is a great college in California, but it's not the only one there!If you want to attend college in the Golden State,you'll benefit from learninghow to apply to the UC schoolsand getting info on thecheapest colleges in California. How does USC's selectivity compare with those of other top colleges? Get the answer in our guide to the most selective schools in the nation! USC likely isn't the only school you're applying to. Check out our guides to learn more about how to get into Columbia and how to get into NYU. Want to get into USC or your personal top choice college? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Political Science 101 - Citation linking assignment Essay

Political Science 101 - Citation linking assignment - Essay Example The paper examines the relevance of South African interim constitution. It has related Common Law to the interim constitution. The rights asserted on the interim constitution have been critiqued against the intrinsic approach of common law. The interim constitution has risks in terms of its implications on common people. The paper tries to analyze South African interim constitution in the light of the freedom and security that the common law provided for the people. The political scenario in South Africa has been examined by the author in the light of post implementation of interim constitution. The plans to merge the provisions of Common Law into interim constitution have been analyzed in the paper. The constitutionlisation and politicization of issues which could be the implications of South African interim constitution has been is associated with Common Laws. The paper cross examines the proposals for South African interim constitution. The implications on common law have been discussed. The rights to access, accretion, and avulsion as per the nature of common law have been found to be lacking in the interim constitution. The impact of the judgments on the balance of federal and state judicial systems and its impact on the common-law process have been discussed. This paper relates Common Laws to the constitution. The paper describes common law as to be decentralized. The paper examines the history of the evolution of English Common Law; it analyzes how Roman law of Justinian and the ecclesiastical canon law have influenced the former. The paper reexamines Common Law in a historical perspective. The crucial influences that constituted Common Law have been detailed in the paper. This article traces the evolution of the executive and illustrates the historical relationship between the perceived interests of the ruling political elites and the evolution of executive power. The scope and powers of the executive